- (1949-1950)This crisis refers to the ideological split between the Kabyle leaders who called for a secular and multicultural Algeria and the dominant Arab-Islamist ideology within the Algerian mainstream nationalist movement. Although the crisis alienated many Berbers and many were purged, it did not provoke a mass desertion of Berbers. In addition, Hocine Aït Ahmed was excluded from the leadership of the Organisation spéciale (OS), francophone intellectuals such as Mouloud Mammeri and Mouloud Feraoun were condemned for their reactionary regionalism, and key Kabyle historic leaders of the war of independence, notably Abbane Ramdane and Krim Belkacem, were assassinated. These tensions resurfaced after independence and remain potent down to this day between visions of a secular Algeria and an Arab-Muslim Algeria, although Algeria's 1964 constitution declared Algeria to be an "Arab Muslim country."
Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) . Hsain Ilahiane. 2014.
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Chronology — ♦ 7000 5000 B.C. Capsian civilization; emergence of proto Mediterranean peoples, ancestors of the Berbers. ♦ 6000 2000 B.C. Neolithic period in the Maghreb and the Sahara. ♦ 3300 B.C. Egyptian archeological records refer to a battle between the… … Historical dictionary of the berbers (Imazighen)
Introduction — Although the Berbers form sizable populations in North Africa and the Sahel, they have been reduced to a minority within their respective home states. Berbers are the ancient inhabitants of North Africa, but rarely have they formed an actual… … Historical dictionary of the berbers (Imazighen)
Abbane, Ramdane — (1920 1957) Abbane was one of the founders of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) and one of the historic leaders of the Algerian Revolution. Abbane was born in the village of Azouza, in the region of Larba Nat Iraten in Greater Kabylia.… … Historical dictionary of the berbers (Imazighen)
Front des Forces Socialistes — (FFS) This is an opposition party founded by Hocine Aït Ahmed and Mohand Ou Lhaj in 1963 to represent and defend essentially Berber civil and political rights. It resisted President Ahmed Ben Bella s one party rule and eventually led to a… … Historical dictionary of the berbers (Imazighen)
Algeria — /al jear ee euh/, n. a republic in NW Africa: formerly comprised 13 departments of France; gained independence 1962. 29,830,370; 919,352 sq. mi. (2,381,122 sq. km). Cap.: Algiers. * * * Algeria Introduction Algeria Background: After a century of… … Universalium
Berber people — Berbers Imazighen / ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⴻⵏ … Wikipedia