- ♦ 7000-5000 B.C. Capsian civilization; emergence of proto-Mediterranean peoples, ancestors of the Berbers.♦ 6000-2000 B.C. Neolithic period in the Maghreb and the Sahara.♦ 3300 B.C. Egyptian archeological records refer to a battle between the army of the Pharaohs and Libyans (called tehenu).♦ 1274 B.C. King Ramses II recruits Libyans to fight the Hittites.♦ 1279-1213 B.C. King Ramses II invites Libyans to settle near Memphis and Libyan domination of Middle Egypt.♦ 1000 B.C. Phoenicians acquire trading posts in Spain and establish ports of call in Sicily, North Africa, and elsewhere in the western Mediterranean.♦ 950 B.C. Sheshonq I, a Libyan, founds the 22nd Egyptian dynasty.♦ 814 B.C. Foundation of Carthage by Phoenicians escaping from Tyre with Princess Dido.♦ 500-400 B.C. Formation of Berber Kingdoms: Mauritania in the west, Massaessyles in the center, and Massyles in the east.♦ 400-500 B.C. Carthage expands into its African hinterlands.♦ 264-241 B.C. First Punic War with Rome; Carthaginians occupy Messina.♦ 239-237 B.C. Mathos and Libyans revolt against Carthage and occupy Tunis, Utica, and Bizerte.♦ 220 B.C. Syphax is king of the Massaessyles of Numidia.♦ 218-202 B.C. Second Punic War.♦ 204 B.C. Defeat of Syphax; Massinissa encroaches on Cirta and makes it his headquarters.♦ 174-150 B.C. Massinissa, king of the Massyles kingdom.♦ 150 B.C. Numidic-Phoenician war; defeat of Carthage in Zema.♦ 148 B.C. Death of Massinissa.♦ 146 B.C. Third Punic War; final destruction of Carthage; beginning of the Roman occupation of North Africa; foundation of Africa Proconsularis.♦ 116 B.C. Jugurtha, Massinissa's grandson, unites Numidia.♦ 112-104 B.C. Jugurthine War; Jugurtha defies the Romans; he is eventually betrayed by King Bocchus of Mauretania.♦ 82 B.C. Hierbas unites Numidia and is ruined by Rome.♦ 46 B.C. Defeat of Juba I; Rome annexes Numidia and creates the Roman province of Africa Nova.♦ 33 B.C. Death of King Bocchus of Mauritania.♦ 25 B.C. Augustus gives Mauritania to Juba II as a client kingdom.♦ A.D. 17-24 Revolt of Tacfarinas.♦ 23 Death of Juba II; accession of his son Ptolemy.♦ 40 Murder of Ptolemy by Caligula.♦ 42 Rome creates Mauritania Tingitana in the west and Mauritania Caesariensis in the center.♦ 45 Moor and Numidian revolts.♦ 100 Christianity enters the Maghreb. second century Roman consolidation; spread of olive cultivation and road network; Africans achieve influence in Rome.♦ 117 Lucius Quitus, a Berber, appointed to the senate and senior posts by Trajan.♦ 125 Birth of Apuleius of Madauros.♦ 170 Apuleius writes the Golden Ass; birth of Tertullian.♦ 193 Lacius Septimius Severus from Liptis Magna becomes the first African emperor of Rome.♦ 312 Donatist schism begins.♦ 340 Rise of the Circumcelliones; increasing strength of Donatism.♦ 347 Donatists and Circumcelliones unite against Roman power.♦ 354 Birth of Saint Augustine.♦ 372-376 Revolt of Firmus in the Kabyle Mountains, with support from Donatists.♦ 395 Saint Augustine becomes bishop of Hippo.♦ 396 Revolt of Firmus's brother Gildon, with Donatist support.♦ 429 Invasion of Africa by the Vandals.♦ 430 Saint Augustine dies during the siege of Hippo.♦ 533 The fall of the Vandals; reconquest of Africa for the Eastern Empire by Count Belisarius; restoration of Catholic supremacy.♦ 540 Yabdas's revolt in the Aurès.♦ 570 Birth of Prophet Muhammad.♦ 596 Berber uprisings against the Byzantines.♦ 642 Arabs occupy Cyrenaica.♦ 643 Arabs occupy Tripoli, destroy Sabratha, and invade Fezzan and Barqa.♦ 647 Muslims defeat the Byzantine army at Sbeitla; occupation of Tripolitania.♦ 669 `Uqba Ibn Nafi` seizes Tripolitania and Byzacena; foundation of the city of Qayrawan; Berber resistance by Kusayla.♦ 683 `Uqba's expedition to the Atlantic; he is defeated by Kusayla, a Berber leader; Arabs retreat temporarily from the Maghreb; death of `Uqba at Tehuda (around Biskra); Kusayla occupies Qayrawan.♦ 688 Arab counteroffensive; Kusayla dies.♦ 695 Hassan Ibn Nu`man invades the Maghrib, captures Carthage, but Arabs armies are defeated by Al-Kahina, Berber queen of the Aures.♦ 701 Al-Kahina dies; end of Berber resistance; the Berbers convert to Islam.♦ 711 Tariq Ibn Ziyad leads the conquest of Spain.♦ 740 Emergence of Khariji beliefs and practices; development of the Ibadithe sect.♦ 744 Barghwata establish a Berber state in Tamesna along the Atlantic coast of Morocco.♦ 748 Salih, prophet and founder of the Barghwata kingdom, reigns.♦ 758 Ibadithes occupy Qayrawan.♦ 760 Fall of the Ibadithe imamate in Tripoli.♦ 765 Ibn Rustum founds the city of Tahart, capital of the Rustumid dynasty.♦ 768 Ibadithe uprising in Africa; Ibadithe exodus to Tahart.♦ 776 Tahart is capital of the Ibadithes; Ibn Rustum becomes imam of the Ibadithes.♦ 786-789 Idris Ibn `Abd Allah founds the Idrissid dynasty.♦ 800 Aghlabid dynasty rules Tunisia.♦ 807 Idris II founds the city of Fès.♦ 827 Aghlabids conquer Sicily.♦ 842 Yunnus declares the Barghwata heresy.♦ 868 Aghlabids conquer Malta.♦ 878 Aghlabids occupy Syracuse.♦ 896 Aghlabids crush Berbers of Nafusa, a Rustumid stronghold in Libya.♦ 909 Collapse of the Aghlabid and Rustumid dynasties; Tahart Ibadithes find asylum in Sadrata; foundation of an Ibadithe imamate in Jabal Nafusa, Libya.♦ 910 Fatimids occupy North Africa; `Obeid Allah al Mahdi is recognized as caliph; he tries to convert Berbers to Shiite Islam; Berber uprisings against the Fatimids.♦ 927 Foundation of the city of M'sila.♦ 936 Foundation of the city of `Achir, capital of the Zirid dynasty.♦ 960 Bulluggin Ibn Ziri founds the cities of Algiers, Medea, and Miliana.♦ 972 Fatimids leave the Maghrib to Egypt; Zirids take over the Maghrib.♦ 979-989 Expansion of the Zirid dynasty; Bulluggin invades the Barghwata kingdom, Fès, and Sijilmassa.♦ 985 Collapse of the Idrissid dynasty.♦ 990 The Empire of Ghana annexes the Saharan city of Awdaghust.♦ 1014 Rise of the Hammadid dynasty.♦ 1050 Banu Hilal Arabs invade the Maghrib.♦ 1053-1069 Almoravids establish control over central Morocco.♦ 1059 Almoravids destroy the Barghwata heresy.♦ 1062 Almoravids found their new capital of Marrakech.♦ 1068 Almoravids found Bijaya.♦ 1070 Almoravids establish control over Fès.♦ 1077-1078 Almoravids take over Tanger; fight the Empire of Ghana and control the trans-Saharan caravan trade; birth of Ibn Tumart, the Almohad Mahdi; Bijaya becomes the capital of the Hammadids dynasty.♦ 1094 Birth of `Abd Al Mu'min at Tajra (Nedroma).♦ 1102 Almoravids complete conquest of Islamic Spain.♦ 1106 Death of Yusuf Ibn Tachafin.♦ 1116 Ibn Tumart meets `Abd Al Mu'min in Mallala, Algeria, and recruits the future founder of the Almohads dynasty.♦ 1121 Ibn Tumart is declared the Mahdi of the Almohads and fights the Almoravids.♦ 1129 Almohads besiege Marrakech.♦ 1130 Ibn Tumart dies, and leadership passes to `Abd Al Mu'min.♦ 1139-1146 Almohads conquer Fès and Marrakech.♦ 1162 Death of `Abd Al Mu'min; Abu Ya`qub Yusef becomes emir.♦ 1172 Almohad Empire extends its control from the Atlantic to Tripolitania and from Spain to the western Sahel.♦ 1229 Foundation of the Hafsids dynasty with Tunis as its capital.♦ 1235 Rise of the `Abd Al Wadids dynasty in Tlemcen, then in central North Africa.♦ 1248 Marinid dynasty establishes control in western Maghrib and takes over Fès and Marrakech.♦ 1269 Collapse of the Almohads dynasty.♦ 1276 Marinids build Fès Al Jdid.♦ 1350 Ibn Battuta, Berber explorer, visits the Empire of Mali.♦ 1370 Marinids establish control over Tlemcen.♦ 1374 Marinids divided into Fès and Marrakech kingdoms.♦ 1415-1514 Portuguese occupy Ceuta (1415), Tanger (1471), Massat (1488), Safi and Agadir (1508), Azemmour (1513), and Mazagan (1514).♦ 1492 Christians occupy Granada, and Muslims flee to North Africa.♦ 1494 Collapse of the Hafsid dynasty.♦ 1497 Spain occupies Melilla, Mers El Kebir, Oran, Peñon d'Alger, Cherchell, Dellys, and Mostghanam.♦ 1510 Leo Africanus visits Bilad Al-Sudan, spends time in Timbuktu and Gao.♦ 1517 Ottomans occupy Tlemcen.♦ 1517-1525 Sa`diyin establish themselves in the south and take over Marrakech, wage holy war against Christian Portugal and Spain.♦ 1554 Ottoman Empire captures Libya.♦ 1574 Ottomans take over Tunis.♦ 1576 Ottomans temporarily occupy Fès but are forced to withdraw.♦ 1578-1591 Sa`diyin invasion of Timbuktu and the northern territories of the Songhay Empire.♦ 1580 Spain occupies Ceuta.♦ 1609 Waves of Andalusi people escape to North Africa.♦ 1630-1641 Dila Zawiya in the Middle Atlas reaches its height of influence and power; it is ruined by Moulay Al Rachid in 1668.♦ 1631 The rise of the `Alawite dynasty in Tafilalt, Morocco.♦ 1659-1669 Moulay Rachid establishes the `Alawite dynasty.♦ 1667 Moulay Rachid destroys Illigh and its maraboutic family.♦ 1672-1727 Sultan Moulay Isma'il builds over 76 qasbas (forts) in the Middle Atlas and staffs them with `Abid al Boukhaari (black soldiers) to secure communication routes and to watch over the dissident Berber tribes of the Middle Atlas.♦ 1674 Middle Atlas Sanhaja tribes overthrow the agents of Sultan Moulay Isma`il and refused submission of tax payments.♦ 1811-1822 Berber revolt during which Middle Atlas Sanhaja tribes rise against Sultan Moulay Sliman's (1792-1822) proscription of the cult of saints and endorsement of puritan Wahhabi doctrines.♦ 1814 Treaty of Paris establishes French sovereignty over Senegal and Mauritania.♦ 1830 France begins its colonization of Algeria.♦ 1835 Rise of the Sanusi movement in Libya.♦ 1842 Sanusi order founds its first zawiyas in Cyrenaica.♦ 1853 Heinrich Barth, German explorer, visits Timbuktu.♦ 1857 French conquest of the Kabyle.♦ 1858-1860 Kabyle uprisings.♦ 1859 Aures uprising.♦ 1860 Hodna uprising.♦ 1863-1904 French rule and conquest establish French Sudan.♦ 1871 Al Mokrani uprising.♦ 1876 Al `Amri revolt.♦ 1881 Establishment of a French protectorate in Tunisia.♦ 1881-1883 Bou`mama rebellion in southern Oran.♦ 1902 Sanusi revolt is crushed by the French.♦ 1912 Establishment of a French protectorate in Morocco; Spain controls most of northern and southern Morocco; Libya becomes an Italian protectorate.♦ 1914 Moha Ou Hammou uprising against the French, winning the battle of Lehri in the Middle Atlas.♦ 1915 Battle of Qasr Bu Hadi; Idris becomes leader of the Sanusi order.♦ 1916 Tuareg rebels led by Kaocen occupy Agadez.♦ 1921-1926 `Abdelkarim al-Khattabi revolt in the Rif, northern Morocco.♦ 1922 Establishment of the Colonie du Niger; the Citroën trans-Saharan adventure arrives in Bourem, Mali.♦ 1926 Foundation of Etoile Nord Africaine (ENA).♦ 1930 Berber Dahir.♦ 1933 Aït Atta resist the French in the Sahara and the Anti-Atlas; battle of Bougafer.♦ 1937 Foundation of the Parti du Peuple Algérien (PPA).♦ 1940 Emergence of Algerian nationalism; foundation of the Institut Français d'Afrique Noire (IFAN) in Dakar, Senegal.♦ 1945 Massacres of Algerians following nationalist uprisings at Kherrata, Setif, Guelma, and Saida.♦ 1949 Berberist crisis; Kabyle leaders call for a secular and multicultural Algerian society (an Algérie Algérienne); opposition to an Arab-Islamic basis for Algeria.♦ 1951 Libyan independence, 24 December.1954 Beginning of the Algerian war for national liberation; formation of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN) in a breakaway from the PPA.1956 Moroccan independence, 2 March; Tunisian independence, 20 March; first congress of the FLN in the Soummam Valley, Kabylia, 20 August.1956-1957 `Addi Ou Bihi revolt in Tafilalt.1958-1959 Rif uprising is repressed.1959 Foundation of the Movement Populaire (MP) by Mahjoubi Ahardan.1960 Nigerian independence, 3 August. Malian independence, 22 September. Mauritanian independence, 28 November.1962 Algerian independence, 5 July.1962-1963 Tuareg of Idrar Niforas in northeastern Mali rebel against the government of Mali.1963 Foundation of the Front des Forces Socialistes party (FFS) by Hocine Aït Ahmed.1967 Foundation of Association Marocaine de la Recherche et de l'Echange Culturel (AMREC) in Rabat; foundation of Paris-based Académie Berbère d'Echange et de Recherches Culturels; in1969 renamed Agraw Imazighen.1969 Mu`ammar Gadhafi deposes the Sanusi monarchy.1972 Second coup attempt on the king of Morocco, Hassan II; Mohamed Oufqir, a Berber general, is implicated.1972-1974 The Sahel suffers one of the worst droughts in memory, devastating nomadic livelihood systems.1973 Kabyle activists form Groupe d'Etudes Berbères at the University of Paris VIII-Vincennes.1978 Establishment of Ateliers Imedyazen, an outreach and publication cooperative in Paris to debate and disseminate Berber issues; foundation of Tamaynut Association.1980 Algerian government cancels Mouloud Mammeri's lecture at the University of Tizi-Ouzou; Kabyle protests; repression of protestors by security forces; Berber Spring (Tafsut); foundation of the Mouvement Culturel Berbère (MCB).1980-1990 Proliferation of Berber cultural associations.1984-1985 Drought destroys about 70 percent of Tuareg livestock.1989 Foundation of the Rassemblement pour la Culture et la Démocratie (RCD) by Said Sadi; Libya deports Malian Tuareg; Union du Maghrib Arabe (UMA) entered into by Algeria, Libya, Mauritania, Morocco, and Tunisia.1990 Front Islamique du Salut (FIS) sweeps municipal and regional elections; erosion and humiliation of the FLN; Tuareg attack Tchin Tabaraden; start of Tuareg Rebellion in Niger; armed Tuareg rebels attack government in Mali and Niger; Front pour la Liberation de l'Azaoud (FLA) seeks to establish a new state in northern Mali; interior ministers of Algeria, Mali, and Niger meet in Tamanrasset to discuss armed Tuareg uprisings; presidents of Libya, Algeria, Mali, and Niger hold a summit to discuss Tuareg issues; Tuareg aim to set up a free Tuareg state.1991 Tuareg destroy a border checkpoint, erasing border markings between Niger and Mali; Tuareg massacres; Tuareg attack In Gall; Agadir Charter calls for the recognition of the Amazigh language and culture in Morocco; two Tuareg rebel groups and the government of Mali sign a truce in Tamanrasset; concessions included the establishment of a Tuareg autonomous region and the withdrawal of the Malian army from Timbuktu and Gao; the Front Populaire de Libération de l'Azaouad (FLA) continues its attacks; Malian army retaliation increases.1992 Tuareg rebel leaders and the government of Mali sign a truce; Mali and Algeria to repatriate Malian Tuareg and refugees.1992-1993 Niger admits the existence of a Tuareg rebellion and calls for peace talks; continued Tuareg attacks and raids; truce between the Front de Libération de l'Aïr et de l'Azawad (FLAA) and the government of Niger.1993 Tuareg refugees begin to return to Mali from Algeria.1994 Massacre of Tuareg civilians by Malian armed forces; Tuareg assaults on Gao; Berber associations create an umbrella organization for the Amazigh cultural movement, Conseil National de Coordination (CNC); Tuareg rebel leaders and the government of Niger hold peace talks in Paris; Tuareg assault on government forces; members of the Goulmima-based organization, Tilleli, are arrested for showing banners written in Berber script (Tifinagh) during Labor Day march; King Hassan II calls for teaching "Berber dialects"; Moroccan television begins broadcasting a daily four-minute news bulletin in Tamazight, Tashalhiyt, and Tarifit.1994-1995 School boycott in Kabylia.1995 Algerian government creates the Haut Commissariat à l'Amazighité (HCA) to oversee the insertion of Tamazight in the education system and media; it fails to achieve its mission; peace agreement signed between the government of Niger and Tuareg groups ending the Tuareg revolt; skirmishes continue; Malian Tuareg call on the international community to help solve Mali's northern problems; continuous cycles of retaliatory killings of Tuareg civilians and Tuareg assaults; Algeria relocates Malian refuges to new camps.1996 Moroccan law restricts the use of names for Moroccan children to approved Arabic-Muslim names and indirectly outlaws the use of Amazigh names not on the approved list.1997 First World Amazigh Congress held in the Canary Islands (Tafira in Berber).1998 Assassination of Matoub Lounes, Kabyle singer and activist; riots sweep Kabylia.2000 Publication of the Amazigh Manifesto; it calls for an inclusive approach in the reorganization and restructuring of Moroccan history and culture; questions the traditional Arab-Islamic basis of Moroccan society and history.2001 King Mohamed VI announces the foundation of the Institut Royal pour la Culture Amazigh (IRCAM); Black Spring in Kabylia; the massacre of Massinissa; protests throughout Kabylia; government forces kill scores of protestors; Kabyle tribal heads, or `arches, meet in the village of El-Kseur and draft the El-Kseur Platform, which calls for economic demands and official recognition of Berber language and culture.2002 Algerian government recognizes the Berber language, Tamazight, as national (not official) language in constitutional revision.25 January 2002 Moroccan authorities prevent the Association for the Defense of the Victims of the Spanish War from holding a conference in Al Hoceima in northern Morocco on the Spanish use of Germanmanufactured toxic gas to put down the Berber rebellion from 1921 to 1926.2004 Institue Royal pour la Culture Amazigh (IRCAM) publishes its first teaching manual of Tamazight for primary school levels, titled Tifawtin a tamazight (Good Morning, Tamazight).17 January 2005 Algerian government agrees in principle to implement the El-Kseur Platform, but details remain unsettled.21 February 2005 Seven members of IRCAM resign in protest of the total failure of the National Education and Communications ministries to implement the directives of IRCAM.10 June 2005 Activists and members of the Berber movement petition the government to establish the Parti Démocratique Amazigh (PDA) in Morocco.15 August 2005 The political parties of MP, the Mouvement National Populaire (MNP), and l'Union Démocratique (UD) fuse into al-Haraka al-Sha`biyyah al-Muwahhada or Mouvement Populaire Unifié.13 September 2005 Gaddafi Charity Foundation calls on the government of Libya to lift a 1970s ban on the registration of Amazigh names.
Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) . Hsain Ilahiane. 2014.