Hafsids
(1236-1574)
   A dynasty in Tunisia, eastern Algeria, and Libya named after its ancestor Abu Hafs `Umar (1090-1176), a leader of the Berber Hintata tribe in the High Atlas Mountains and one of the first adepts of the Almohad doctrine. It was reinforced by his grandson Abu Zakariya (1228-1249), Almohad governor of Tunis, who a few years after his appointment declared his independence. It had a strong army and a smooth bureaucratic system and maintained a profitable trade with the Italian city-states. Under Sultan Ahmed (1542-1562), the Hafsid realm continued to shrink in the protracted warfare between Spain and the Ottoman Empire. After several Ottoman attempts, in 1574, the Ottoman army reconquered Tunis and put an end to Hamida's rule. Ottoman sovereignty over the central Maghrib from Oran eastward was established for three centuries-that is, until the arrival of the French in 1830.

Historical Dictionary of the Berbers (Imazighen) . . 2014.

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